In a globalizing world, we have to reconsider, not only the way we govern our communities, but also how their governance interacts with the governance of regions and nations, as well as global governance.
By chance or otherwise, I became interested in this topic – and researched and wrote about it – quite awhile before anyone thought of such felicitous terms as rescaling or multi-level governance. As a result a lot of useful data are buried away in publications today’s researchers are unlikely to identify as relevant sources. Therefore, I offer the following bibliographic note, listing the publications in question, together with a brief note for each, explaining its relevance to rescaling, multi-level governance, or the evolving place of cities in a globalizing world. Some of these articles were published as journal articles, others as book chapters, but all are based on original research.
This annotated bibliography does not include my recent publications, such as “Deep Federalism: Respecting Community Difference in National Policy”, which is in the Canadian Journal of Political Science, 39:3 (September 2006) 481–506. In that article, and others recently published or in press, it is clear that the topic has something to do with rescaling.

Christopher Leo and Robert Fenton. “‘Mediated Enforcement’ and the Evolution of the State: Development Corporations in Canadian City Centres”. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 14 (2) 1990, 185-206.
Made the case that the government of Canada, already in the 1980s, was finding ways of developing different federal government programs for different cities, a key characteristic of multi-level governance. The article explores the political calculations that motivate the federal government to provide unique programs for each city, instead of continuing its long-standing practice of making the same programs available to all cities.
Christopher Leo. “The State in the City: A Political Economy Perspective on Growth and Decay.” In James Lightbody, ed. Canadian Metropolitics. Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman, 1995, ch 2.
As recently as the mid-1990s, the study of Canadian city politics was synonymous with the study of local government. Much of that literature left readers with the impression that the federal government had little to do with cities. This article makes the case that the way cities have grown has been absolutely central to the evolution of our national life, and that the national government has played a central role in shaping city growth.
Christopher Leo. “City Politics in an Era of Globalization.” In Mickey Lauria, ed. Reconstructing Urban Regime Theory: Regulating Local Government in a Global Economy. Sage, 1997, 77-98.
This article finds that the strong national state presence in urban politics that is evident in continental Europe is associated, on one hand, with a political environment that tends to be unreceptive to grass-roots participation in urban development decisions and, on the other, with more state control and less clout for developers in urban development decisions. In the United States, it finds the opposite situation: a more receptive environment for grass-roots participation and developers who are better-placed to exert direct influence upon urban development. In Britain and Canada, the study finds a more complex, “mid-Atlantic” state of affairs.
Christopher Leo. “Regional Growth Management Regime: the Case of Portland, Oregon.” Journal of Urban Affairs 20 (4), 1998, 363-394.
Much of the study of urban regimes sees urban politics as a purely local matter. This article shows that the regime in Portland that was responsible for the city’s growth management included interest groups with a state-wide base of support as well as the government of Oregon. In other words, local regimes may well include elements from outside the locality. It might be useful to think of this phenomenon as rescaling from below.
Christopher Leo. “The Urban Economy and the Power of the Local State: The Politics of Planning in Edmonton and Vancouver.” In Frances Frisken, ed, The Changing Canadian Metropolis: Contemporary Perspectives, vol 2. Berkeley: Institute of Governmental Studies Press, University of California, 1994, 657-98.
A comparison of land use planning controls in Vancouver with those in Edmonton, making the case that stricter controls are easier to achieve in cities that have more clout in the global economy.
Christopher Leo. “City Politics in an Era of Globalization.” In Mickey Lauria, ed. Reconstructing Urban Regime Theory: Regulating Local Government in a Global Economy. Sage, 1997, 77-98.
On the basis of a European-North American comparison, this article makes the case that global economic, technological and administrative pressures work in the direction of making cities around the world more similar to each other, but that a careful cross-national comparison of political practices reveals ongoing tendencies toward the preservation of national differences. In a similar vein, Paul Doremus and colleagues argue that national corporate cultures, and the regulatory apparatus that supports them, are highly resistant to global economic pressures for homogenization. This argument is convincingly set out in Paul N. Doremus, William W. Keller, Louis W. Pauly, and Simon Reich, The Myth of the Global Corporation (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998).
Following is a list of some more recent articles on this topic that I wrote, often with a little help from my friends:
Christopher Leo. 2006. Deep federalism: Respecting community difference in national policy. Canadian Journal of Political Science 39 (3): 481-506.
Christopher Leo and Martine August. 2006. National policy and community initiative: Mismanaging homelessness in a slow growth city. Canadian Journal of Urban Research 15, no. 1, (supplement).
Christopher Leo and Mike Pyl. 2007. Multi-level governance: Getting the job done and respecting community difference – Three Winnipeg cases. Canadian Political Science Review 1 (2). Accessible at:
Christopher Leo and Todd Andres. 2008. Deep federalism through local initiative: Unbundling sovereignty in Winnipeg. Canadian Journal of Political Science 41 (1) 2008, pp. 93-117.
Christopher Leo and Jeremy Enns. 2007. Multi-level governance and ideological rigidity: The failure of deep federalism. As yet unpublished. Click here to see a draft.
Christopher Leo with Martine August, Mike Pyl and Matthew D. Rogers. Multi-level governance without municipal government. As yet unpublished. Click here to see a draft.
Christopher Leo and Martine August. 2007. The multi-level governance of immigration and settlement: A Winnipeg case study. As yet unpublished. Click here to see a draft.

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